Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a condition typified by multiple renal cysts and renal enlargement. Classification is usually determined by mode of inheritance—autosomal dominant PKD (ADPKD) or autosomal recessive PKD (ARPKD). ARPKD frequently presents in fetal life, but here we report a rare case of a family with two siblings diagnosed with ADPKD manifesting in utero with novel genetic findings. During the first pregnancy, enlarged cystic kidneys were noted at the gestational age (GA) of 18 weeks, which became progressively larger and anyhdramnios ensued by GA of 25 weeks. The couple opted to terminate the pregnancy. The second pregnancy similarly presented with bilateral enlarged cystic kidneys, but amniotic fluid remained normal throughout and she delivered at GA of 36 weeks. Genetic testing revealed the fetus to be heterozygous in AD PKD1, which is known to cause ADPKD and heterozygous for a hypomorphic allele for ADPKD of uncertain significance. The fetus was also found to be heterozygous in the AR PKHD1 gene with a variant not previously described in the literature. Where fetal features consistent with ARPKD are identified in the setting of familial ADPKD, this fetal manifestation of ADPKD, resulting from combined variants in the PKD1 gene, should be considered.
- renal medicine
- materno-fetal medicine
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