Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) is known to occur from several infectious and non-infectious aetiologies. Among the infectious aetiologies, Haemophilus influenzae, an organism known to cause community-acquired pneumonia, has not been reported in association with DAH prior to this case. On the other hand, vaping, an evolving epidemic concern, has been linked to various types of lung injury, including DAH. However, DAH related to vaping is only limited to several case reports. Our case describes H. influenzae pneumonia with DAH in a patient known to have vaped until the night prior to elective lobectomy for lung cancer and developed DAH within 24 hours of hospitalisation. He subsequently recovered with treatment. DAH requires immediate recognition, and healthcare providers need to be aware that neither haemoptysis nor decrease in haemoglobin level is necessarily associated. Prior to diagnosis, empirical treatment with intravenous steroids and antibiotics can be life-saving.
- primary care
- pulmonary emphysema
- lung function
- pneumonia (respiratory medicine)
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Contributors AK wrote the paper and collected the data. FH corrected the paper; diagnosis. AK and JJ revised and corrected the paper.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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