Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is a retrovirus associated with adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). In addition to HAM/TSP and ATL, HTLV-I-associated encephalopathy and cerebellar involvement have been reported. We report a case of an 87-year-old Japanese woman presenting with progressive dysarthria and gait disturbance. Neurological examination showed word-finding difficulty, scanning speech, saccadic eye movements, ocular dysmetria, gaze-evoked nystagmus and bilateral dysmetria. There was no motor weakness or spasticity. HTLV-I antibody was detected in both her serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Cerebrospinal fluid neopterin (57 pg/mL) and IgG index (3.27) were significantly elevated. MRI showed cerebellar swelling. She was finally diagnosed with HTLV-I associated cerebellitis. Two courses of high-dose intravenous methylpredonine therapy attenuated cerebellar ataxia and cerebellar swelling. It suggests that cerebellitis can result from HTLV-I infection, regardless of the existence of ATL or HAM/TSP.
- infection (neurology)
- brain stem / cerebellum
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Contributors AM described main document, KE checked laboratory findings, and EN and ST finalised document.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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