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Nephropleural fistula after supracostal approach for PCNL: report of two cases with review of literature
  1. Abhishek Bhat,
  2. Jonathan E Katz,
  3. Nicholas Smith and
  4. Hemendra N Shah
  1. Department of Urology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Hemendra N Shah; drhemendrashah{at}yahoo.co.in

Abstract

Nephropleural fistula is a rarely encountered complication of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Only 11 cases have been reported in literature to date. Often associated with supracostal punctures, the presentation is frequently delayed. Diagnosis is based on imaging, mainly X-rays and CT along with retrograde pyelography that establishes the fistulous connection. A difficult to diagnose condition, any patient with a supracostal access PCNL who presents with delayed symptoms of breathlessness and has leucocytosis with fluid in the lungs on chest imaging should be suspected to have a nephropleural fistula. The management involves intercostal tube thoracostomy to relieve symptoms and drainage of the operated kidney by double-J stent placement, if not placed already. Prompt recognition and management results in excellent recovery with no sequelae. We present our experience with two such cases and our aim was to familiarise the practising urologist regarding the diagnosis and management of this infrequent condition.

  • urology
  • urological surgery
  • renal system
  • respiratory system
  • urinary and genital tract disorders

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Footnotes

  • Twitter @drabhishekbhat

  • Contributors AB: Contributed to initial drafting of the manuscript, data design, critical revision of content and final approval of the manuscript. JEK: contributed to drafting of the manuscript and critical revision of content. NS: contributed to drafting of the manuscript and critical revision of content. HNS: contributed to conception, initial drafting of the manuscript, acquisition of data and design, critical revision of content and final approval of the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.