Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare pulmonary condition which leads to excessive accumulation of proteinaceous material within the alveoli. Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis (IPH) is another orphan lung disease and results in recurrent alveolar haemorrhage. This case study describes a case of these two rare pathologies occurring together. A man in his 50s presented with a 6-week history of haemoptysis and worsening dyspnoea. A CT scan of the thorax showed multifocal, bilateral ground glass opacification with a wide differential diagnosis. Full autoantibody screen including myositis panel and coeliac screen were negative. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and tissue from a transbronchial lung cryobiopsy were non-diagnostic. Tissue from a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of PAP with IPH as a second separate pathology. The association of IPH and PAP has not previously been described. We discuss these conditions and postulate how and if they may be related.
- respiratory medicine
- lung function
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Contributors This case study was proposed to LW by MH who provided guidance and edited the case. LW researched the area and wrote the case report. Expert opinion on the case was sought from CMC who also helped edit and revise the case report.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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