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Cardiovascular complications of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia
  1. Michelle M de Leau and
  2. Remko S Kuipers
  1. Heart Center, department of Cardiology, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  1. Correspondence to Dr Remko S Kuipers; R.S.kuipers{at}


The incidence of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia has risen due to a worldwide increase in immunocompromised patients and antibiotic resistance. We describe three patients who experienced severe, including cardiovascular, complications of pneumococcal bacteraemia. Cardiovascular complications related to pneumococci may run a fulminant course. However, some of these life-threatening complications (eg, endocarditis and aortitis) may long remain unnoticed or be misdiagnosed and therefore delay correct treatment. We review the literature with regards to the incidence, diagnosis and treatment of these rare but possibly lethal and hence important cardiovascular complications.

  • heart failure
  • valvar diseases
  • infections
  • meningitis
  • vascular surgery

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  • Contributors Both authors wrote, reviewed and accorded the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.