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Primary intraventricular haemorrhage: the role of frontal minicraniotomy and external ventricular drainage
  1. João Páscoa Pinheiro1,
  2. Diogo Reis Carneiro2,
  3. Daniela Matos1 and
  4. Ricardo Pereira1
  1. 1Neurosurgery, Centro Hospitalar e Universitario de Coimbra EPE, Coimbra, Portugal
  2. 2Neurology, Centro Hospitalar e Universitario de Coimbra EPE, Coimbra, Portugal
  1. Correspondence to Dr João Páscoa Pinheiro; jpascoapinheiro{at}


Primary intraventricular haemorrhage (PIVH) is an uncommon type of intracerebral haemorrhage, accounting for only 0.31% of all strokes and 3.1% of all intracerebral haemorrhages. Due to the low incidence of PIVH, little is known about its clinical characteristics, risk factors, aetiologies, prognosis and treatment. Acute hydrocephalus is common and is associated with a poor prognosis. External ventricular drainage (EVD) could promptly reduce intracranial pressure by diverting cerebrospinal fluid and intraventricular blood; however, the incidence of complications such as central nervous system infection, catheter occlusion and rebleeding are relatively common. Despite being an invasive procedure, frontal minicraniotomy is an available therapeutic option to avoid complications of EVD. The authors report a case of a PIVH managed with frontal minicraniotomy and perform a literature review about epidemiological data, clinical features and treatment of PIVH.

  • coma and raised intracranial pressure
  • hydrocephalus

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  • Contributors All author contibute to the work. JPP, DRC, DM: conceptualisation, methodology, statistics, writing. JPP, RP: writing original draft, review and editing.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.