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Polymicrobial native valve endocarditis due to Bacillus cereus and Cardiobacterium hominis
  1. Sherin Meledathu1,
  2. Rachel Denyer1,
  3. Afsoon Roberts1 and
  4. Gary Simon2
  1. 1Infectious Disease, The George Washington University Hospital, Washington, DC, USA
  2. 2Infectious Disease, George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services, Washington, DC, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Sherin Meledathu; rindathu{at}


We present a case of polymicrobial subacute bacterial endocarditis and bacteremia with Bacillus cereus and Cardiobacterium hominis in a 72-year-old man with pre-existing mitral valve disease and prior mitral valve repair who presented with renal failure and glomerulonephritis. Bacillus is often a contaminant in blood cultures but has been rarely implicated in patients with invasive infections such as endocarditis. Intravenous drug use, prosthetic heart valves, valvular heart disease and venous catheters are the most frequently described risk factors for Bacillus bacteremia and endocarditis in the medical literature. Management is challenging as Bacillus is resistant to penicillin and cephalosporin antibiotics due to production of beta-lactamase. Polymicrobial endocarditis is uncommon and when it occurs typically involves Staphylococcal species. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of polymicrobial endocarditis in which both Bacillus and a HACEK organism are implicated.

  • infectious diseases
  • valvar diseases
  • drugs: infectious diseases

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  • Contributors Drs SM and RD were the main contributors and writers of the manuscript. They had made the initial drafts and conducted a literature review for the discussion. Drs AR and GS presented the idea to write up this manuscript and made necessary revisions. We also recognise our patient who allowed us to work with him and write up his case.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.