Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Successful treatment of smouldering Human T cell Leukemia Virus Type1 associated bronchiolitis and alveolar abnormalities with amplified natural killer therapy
  1. Kenjiro Nagai1,2,
  2. Sho Nagai1 and
  3. Yu Hara2
  1. 1Ebino Centro Clinic, Ebino City, Miyazaki, Japan
  2. 2Yokohama City University School of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
  1. Correspondence to Dr Kenjiro Nagai; ken701n427{at}


In amplified natural killer (ANK) cell immunotherapy, NK cells are extracted from the patient’s blood, cultured for enhancing its anticancer effects and amplified before they are returned to the body. Here, we administered ANK therapy to an 81-year-old female patient diagnosed with smouldering human T cell leukaemia virus-associated bronchioloalveolar disorder. After eight sessions of twice-weekly NK cell infusion, the bilateral diffuse granular shadows on a CT scan and the overall respiratory function improved markedly. Later, the patient received outpatient treatment without serious side effects. Thus, ANK therapy may be safe for elderly patients owing to its infrequent side effects.

  • cancer intervention
  • infections
  • malignant disease and immunosuppression
  • respiratory system

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Contributors KN, SN and YH: Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; Final approval of the version to be published; Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.