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Co-infection of intestinal tuberculosis and mucormycosis in a patient with Down syndrome: a unique case report with literature review
  1. Bishal Pal1,
  2. Ketavath Thirupathaiah1,
  3. Bhawana Ashok Badhe2,
  4. Vishnu Prasad Nelamangala Ramakrishnaiah1,
  5. Souradeep Dutta1,
  6. Abhinaya Reddy1 and
  7. Ankit Jain1
  1. 1Department of Surgery, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India
  2. 2Depatment of Pathology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, Puducherry, India
  1. Correspondence to Professor Vishnu Prasad Nelamangala Ramakrishnaiah; vprasad285{at}


Mucormycosis represents several unusual opportunistic infection caused by saprophytic aseptate fungi. There is a recent rise in cases of mucormycosis due to an increase in diabetic and immunodeficient patients like patients on long-term steroids, immunomodulators due to organ transplantation, malignancies, mainly haematological malignancies, and autoimmunity. Anatomically, mucormycosis can be localised most commonly as rhino-orbito-cerebral followed by pulmonary, disseminated, cutaneous and gastrointestinal, rarest being small intestinal. Patients with Down syndrome are immunodeficient due to their impaired immune response. Disseminated tuberculosis is also common in immunodeficient patients. We report a rare case of small intestinal mucormycosis in a patient with Down syndrome with coexisting intestinal tuberculosis. Due to the invasiveness of mucormycosis, the patient succumbed to death despite providing aggressive surgical debridement and medical management.

  • surgery
  • infection (gastroenterology)
  • infectious diseases
  • tropical medicine (infectious disease)

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  • Contributors Concept and design: BP and AJ. Data acquisition and analysis: BP, KT and BAB. Manuscript preparation: BP, SD and AJ. Critical revision and finalising of the manuscript: RA and VPNR.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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