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Rare complication of adenomyosis: acute purulent peritonitis and septicaemia in a young nulligravida
  1. Kameshwarachari Pushpalatha,
  2. Ruchi Kalra,
  3. Bharti Singh and
  4. Anusha Devalla
  1. Obstetrics and Gynaecology, All India Institute of Medical Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
  1. Correspondence to Dr Ruchi Kalra; drruchi.kalra15{at}


Adenomyosis is a benign gynaecological condition in multiparous women during their middle age commonly presenting as pelvic pain and menorrhagia. We report a case of a 27-year-old nulligravida of Asian origin from the Indian subcontinent who presented with a huge adenomyotic uterus with mild splenomegaly, and portal cavernoma having gross ascites that developed life-threatening peritonitis and septicaemia. Endometrial aspiration done showed no atypia or malignancy and upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy done showed no dilated varices. With increasing abdominal distension, she developed tachycardia, tachypnoea, septicaemia and oliguria. Exploratory laparotomy done revealed purulent loculi, omentum and bowel adhesion around the uterus. Adnexa was not distinctly identifiable. Hysterectomy with left salpingo-oopherectomy was performed. She required ventilatory support and intensive unit care postoperatively. Histopathology examination showed adenomyosis with suppuration, right ovary endometriotic cyst and left ovary non-specific inflammation. The patient was discharged in stable condition on day 21. Adenomyosis may rarely occur in young nulligravida women as life-threatening manifestations with purulent peritonitis and septicaemia. Early exploration is crucial for diagnosis and recovery.

  • obstetrics
  • gynaecology and fertility
  • reproductive medicine

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  • Contributors KP, as the head of the team and senior gynaecologist, played a key role in treatment decisions and patient care, and reviewing the manuscript. RK, as associate faculty, provided patient care, and did review of the literature, case report writing, critical reviewing and revision, as the corresponding author. BS, as faculty team member/assistant surgeon, provided patient care and reviewed the manuscript. AD, as the senior resident, was involved in the patient care, and assisted in drafting the case report, literature search and revising the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Case reports provide a valuable learning resource for the scientific community and can indicate areas of interest for future research. They should not be used in isolation to guide treatment choices or public health policy.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.