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Epstein-Barr virus reactivation induced myeloperoxidase-specific antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA)-associated vasculitis

Abstract

We present a patient with systemic symptoms including 4 months of dyspnoea worsened with exertion, fatigue, rhinorrhoea, intermittent facial swelling, generalised lymphadenopathy and weight loss. Laboratory studies demonstrated proteinuria and eosinophilia. His serology was consistent with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) reactivation. A lymph node biopsy was consistent with EBV-associated reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. He was told to continue symptomatic treatment for EBV infection. After several admissions, vasculitis workup and myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA) studies were positive. Evolution of clinical symptoms, laboratory parameters and our literature review suggested the diagnosis of EBV-associated ANCA vasculitis. Steroids were started after the patient continued to deteriorate; the viral load started increasing, so we added valganciclovir with favourable clinical response and no relapse during the follow-up for 6 months. This suggests that with evidence of viraemia (primary or reactivation), antiviral treatment likely has clinical benefit while immunosuppression is being considered.

  • infectious diseases
  • proteinurea
  • vasculitis
  • infections

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