About 10% of term neonates present with respiratory distress at birth. The most common aetiologies include transient tachypnoea of the newborn, pneumonia and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Hyaline membrane disease (HMD) in a term infant occurs either as primary HMD, secondary surfactant deficiency or congenital surfactant dysfunction. A detailed history supported with appropriate radiological and laboratory investigations can help a clinician reach a diagnosis. We report a case of surfactant dysfunction disorder which presented as severe MAS and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. In the infant described, the significant history of a sibling death with severe neonatal respiratory disease led us to think of diffuse developmental lung diseases especially surfactant dysfunction syndromes. Exome sequencing detected a heterozygous missense variation in exon 21 of the ATP binding cassette protein member 3 (ABCA3) gene. Based on the clinical picture supported with the exome sequencing, a diagnosis of surfactant dysfunction disorder (ABCA3 deficiency) was confirmed.
- congenital disorders
- neonatal health
- neonatal and paediatric intensive care
- materno-fetal medicine
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Contributors SG, GA, MB: conceived and wrote the manuscript. SW: critically reviewed and finalised the manuscript. All authors (SG, GA, MB, SW): involved in clinical care of the infant, read and approved the manuscript.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Parental/guardian consent obtained.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.