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Prelaminated paramedian forehead flap for subtotal nasal reconstruction using three-dimensional printing
  1. John P Ziegler1 and
  2. Samuel L Oyer2
  1. 1Department of Otolaryngology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA
  2. 2Department of Otolaryngology, Division of Facial Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
  1. Correspondence to John P Ziegler; zieglerj{at}


Nasal reconstruction following a total or subtotal resection presents a challenging clinical scenario. Ample external skin coverage is readily available using the paramedian forehead flap (PMFF), but restoring adequate internal lining of sufficient size and pliability is a major limitation. Intranasal mucosal flaps or free tissue transfer is often employed for this purpose, each with their own sets of limitations. Prelamination of the PMFF with a skin graft prior to transfer is a method to create a composite flap with both internal and external lining. Another challenge in subtotal nasal reconstruction centres around restoring adequate dimensions to the nose without an existing template to work from. Three-dimensional (3D) printing has become an increasingly popular tool in reconstructive surgery as it captures precise patient-specific dimensions to guide reconstruction. Herein, we describe a case of subtotal nasal reconstruction using a prelaminated PMFF using a patient-specific 3D printed model as a template for reconstruction.

  • plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • otolaryngology / ENT

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  • Contributors JPZ drafted and revised the manuscript. SLO drafted and revised the manuscript and performed the surgical technique.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.