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Case report
Development of new cold antibodies in a patient with a history of warm autoimmune haemolytic anaemia
  1. Meghan Anderson1,
  2. Megan Winter2,
  3. Vinicius Jorge3 and
  4. Claudia Dourado3
  1. 1Internal Medicine, Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
  2. 2Internal Medicine, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Miami Beach, Florida, USA
  3. 3Hematology/Oncology, Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Meghan Anderson; Andersme{at}


A 31-year-old male presented to our facility with complaints of shortness of breath and left-sided chest pain. On record review, it was revealed that he had been seen in 2014 for an almost identical presentation and had been found to have haemolytic anaemia with warm autoantibodies. Following his acute treatment during that hospital admission, he was lost to follow-up. During his subsequent admission, 5 years later, he was found to have a systemic autoimmune disorder with a superimposed acute bacterial infection leading to a second case of haemolytic anaemia and at this time with both cold and warm antibodies present. While his diagnosis was initially difficult to make due to both derangements in expected laboratory values and the mixed pattern of the haemolytic anaemia, he was promptly treated with intravenous immune globulin and steroids and was able to make a full recovery.

  • haematology (incl blood transfusion)
  • systemic lupus erythematosus
  • immunology

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  • Contributors MA was responsible for compiling the discussion. MW was responsible for compiling the introduction and case report. All of the authors, MA, MW, VJ and CD were responsible for reviewing and revising the manuscript critically for accurate intellectual content.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.