Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a demyelinating, autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). It causes motor and sensory deficits, altered mental status and other neurological symptoms. Though rarely fatal, it has been associated with residual motor and neurocognitive deficits. Our case consisted of a 4-year-old girl who presented with fatigue and unsteady gait after a respiratory illness. During her hospital course, she became progressively weaker and experienced seizures. Imaging showed sections of demyelination in the CNS, and appropriate treatment was started. Additional labs resulted in positive Mycoplasma pneumoniae serum serology. Antimyelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (anti-MOG) antibodies were also found, which is a risk factor for relapsing, multiphasic ADEM. To our knowledge, this is the first case of anti-MOG antibody-associated ADEM due to M. pneumoniae infection. Our patient has made a complete recovery. The parents only report slightly increased fatigue and irritability.
- infectious diseases
- infection (neurology)
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Contributors PB performed chart review and background research, drafted the manuscript and made edits. DP edited the manuscript and did background research. JI performed chart review and edited the document. LJC edited the document and approved the final version.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Parental/guardian consent obtained.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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