A 70-year-old man presented with acute respiratory failure, alveolar infiltrates and haemoptysis requiring supplemental oxygen. Flexible bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage identifies diffuse alveolar haemorrhage. Clinical and serological evaluations do not identify a precise aetiology and histopathology establishes the diagnosis of isolated pauci-immune pulmonary capillaritis. The patient received induction therapy with high dose methylprednisolone at 1000 mg/day for 5 days and weekly rituximab at 375 mg/m2 scheduled over 4 weeks. Although the patient demonstrated clinical improvement after the first week, he experienced a rapid relapse requiring mechanical ventilation. His induction rituximab regimen was continued and plasma exchange was initiated. Despite these therapies, the patient’s condition deteriorated and passed away. Our case adds insight to the management of this rare entity and describes the use of plasma exchange as salvage therapy.
- respiratory medicine
- respiratory system
- connective tissue disease
- intensive care
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Contributors CJ participated in the drafting, editing and finalisation of the manuscript. GNMP participated in the drafting, editing and finalisation of the manuscript. MX participated in performing the literature search and the formatting of the multimedia for this submission. KG participated in the editing and providing final approval for the contents of this manuscript. All authors participated in the creation of this manuscript.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Next of kin consent obtained.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.