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Case report
Rare case of post-varicella membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis presenting with massive proteinuria

Abstract

Chicken pox caused by varicella zoster virus is usually a self-limiting disease causing rare life-threatening complications. Involvement of the kidneys is infrequent during the course of the illness. Literature shows rare reports of acute glomerulonephritis following varicella infection. We report a case of 16-year-old boy presenting with anasarca with characteristic healed rashes of chicken pox. His urinalysis revealed a ‘massive’ nephrotic range proteinuria (16 g/24 hours), gross hematuria and pyuria. A percutaneous renal biopsy showed membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Most cases of post-varicella glomerulonephritis have been described in children, massive proteinuria of this range in an immunocompetent adolescent, being an extremely rare entity. Acute proliferative glomerulonephritis in such cases is usually an immune complex hypocomplementaemic glomerulonephritis in response to the zoster infection. Proteinuria in most patients is benign and self-limiting with few fatal reports of crescentic glomerulonephritis progressing to acute renal failure.

  • infections
  • nephrotic syndrome
  • proteinurea
  • acute renal failure
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