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Case report
Fulminant immune-mediated necrotising myopathy (IMNM) mimicking myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA)
  1. Sophie Glenn-Cox1,
  2. Robert William Foley1,
  3. John D Pauling2,3 and
  4. Jonathan C L Rodrigues1
  1. 1Radiology Department, Royal United Hospital Bath NHS Trust, Bath, UK
  2. 2Rheumatology Department, Royal National Hospital For Rheumatic Diseases, Bath, UK
  3. 3Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Bath, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Jonathan C L Rodrigues; j.rodrigues1{at}


A 74-year-old man, with inflammatory arthritis, recently commenced on adalimumab, presented with a 4-week history of left-sided chest pain, malaise and shortness of breath. Admission ECG showed age-indeterminate left bundle branch block. Troponin T was 4444 ng/L (normal range <15 ng/L) and acute coronary syndrome treatment was commenced. Catheter angiogram revealed mild-burden non-obstructive coronary disease. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was performed to refine the differential diagnosis and demonstrated no myocardial oedema or late gadolinium enhancement. Extracardiac review highlighted oedema and enhancement of the left shoulder girdle muscles consistent with acute myositis. Creatine kinase was subsequently measured and significantly elevated at 7386 IU/L (normal range 30–200 IU/L in men). Electrophoresis clarified that this was of predominantly skeletal muscle origin. Myositis protocol MRI revealed florid skeletal muscle oedema. The MR findings, together with positive anti-Scl-70 antibodies, suggested fulminant immune-mediated necrotising myopathy presenting as a rare mimic of myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries, diagnosed by careful extracardiac CMR review.

  • radiology
  • cardiovascular medicine
  • rheumatology
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  • Contributors The manuscript was initially drafted by SG-C. SG-C, RWF, JDP and JCLR were involved in further drafting and revision of the manuscript. JDP was also directly involved in patient care. JCLR was involved in interpretation and reporting of the patient’s imaging and image selection for publication. JCLR also initially identified the case for publication. All authors approved the final submission.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests JDP reports grants, personal fees and non-financial support from Actelion Pharmaceuticals; personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim and personal fees from Sojournix Pharma; each outside the submitted work.

  • Patient consent for publication Next of kin consent obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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