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Case report
Interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features and platypnea-orthopnea syndrome
  1. Uthara Mathew1,
  2. Ankit Mittal1,
  3. Surabhi Vyas2 and
  4. Animesh Ray1
  1. 1 Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
  2. 2 Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
  1. Correspondence to Dr Animesh Ray, doctoranimeshray{at}


Interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) is a recently proposed terminology for interstitial lung disease (ILD) with evidence of autoimmunity that does not meet the criteria for a defined connective tissue disease (CTD). Although ILD is well recognised in patients with established CTD, it is rarely the sole presenting feature of CTD. We report a case of 22-year-old male patient, who presented with progressive shortness of breath for 2 months and had features suggestive of platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS). Imaging revealed ILD with usual interstitial pneumonia pattern. Patient had features of autoimmune disorder but did not fulfil the criteria for any CTD and hence was labelled as IPAF. His POS was attributed predominantly to the lower lobe disease. The patient responded well to immunosuppressive treatment. A systematic review of literature of all cases with POS due to pulmonary parenchymal involvement has also been done.

  • interstitial lung disease
  • connective tissue disease
  • statistics and research methods
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  • Contributors UM and AM were involved in patient care. AR and SV were involved in review of literature and supervision of the management. UM and AR helped in preparing the manuscript. AM and SV helped in finalisation of the draft.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Patient consent for publication Obtained.

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