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Case report
Delirium superimposed on dementia precipitated by an unexpected bladder tumour
  1. Caio Redknap and
  2. Daniel Kaitiff
  1. NELFT, Rainham, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Caio Redknap, caio.redknap{at}, c.redknap{at}


A patient in her 70s presented with confusion, agitation and psychotic symptoms. No cause was found until the incidental discovery of urothelial carcinoma. Upon removal of the tumour, the psychiatric symptoms largely improved leaving residual symptoms indicative of dementia. The patient had not been diagnosed with dementia previously and this made for an interesting disease presentation and progression. We discuss the challenges of diagnosing delirium and dementia in complex patients such as these and the importance of identifying a cause when cognition has been impaired by a suspected delirium.

  • memory disorders (psychiatry)
  • psychiatry of old age
  • delirium

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  • Contributors CR and DK: involved with all stages of the process, including the conception, planning, writing, reporting and interpretation of the case report.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Patient consent for publication Obtained.