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Graves’ disease complicated by fetal goitrous hypothyroidism treated with intra-amniotic administration of levothyroxine


Fetal goitrous hypothyroidism is a rare entity and is caused mainly by maternal treatment of Graves’ disease (GD). We report a case of a 22-year-old woman referred at 12 weeks of gestation due to hyperthyroidism subsequent to recently diagnosed GD. She started treatment with propylthiouracil and, at 21 weeks of gestation, fetal goitre was detected. A cordocentesis confirmed the diagnosis of fetal goitrous hypothyroidism, and intra-amniotic administration of levothyroxine (LT4) was performed and repeated through the pregnancy due to maintenance of fetal goitre. The pregnancy proceeded without further complications and a healthy female infant was born at 37 weeks of gestation, with visible goitre and thyroid function within the normal range at birth. Although there is no consensus on the optimal dose, the number of injections and the interval between them, intra-amniotic LT4 administration is recommended once fetal goitrous hypothyroidism is suspected, in order to prevent long-term complications of fetal hypothyroidism.

  • thyroid disease
  • pregnancy
  • materno-fetal medicine
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