X-linked carriers of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) may become phenotypically affected if substantial skewing from lyonisation occurs. We describe a 73-year-old female carrier with an overt CGD phenotype due to skewed lyonisation, complicated by macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)/haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) secondary to Burkholderiacepacia complex septicaemia that was successfully treated with a combination of three antibiotics, an antifungal, granulocyte colony stimulating factor, intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) and ciclosporin. Fully phenotypic immunodeficiency is possible in X-linked CGD carriers when skewed lyonisation occurs, rendering such patients to all the same sequelae of CGD such as MAS/HLH. MAS/HLH should be thoroughly excluded when evaluating ‘cepacia syndrome’ in non-CGD patients.
- pneumonia (respiratory medicine)
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Contributors NU acted as the main author. KK provided editorial assistance and review. AW was responsible for CYBB gene sequencing validation and performance/interpretation of all neutrophil function testing.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Patient consent for publication Obtained.
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