We report the case of a 56-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with a 3-day onset of left limb weakness and feeling intoxicated with poor balance. Stroke hospitalisations in the USA decreased from 2000 to 2010, however the number of hospitalised patients with ischaemic stroke and HIV infection has increased significantly. Herein, we discuss the management of this unique case to highlight the importance of a broad differential diagnosis when approaching HIV/AIDS patients presenting with acute or subacute neurological focalisation. Given that HIV vasculopathy is a diagnosis of exclusion, it requires a thoughtful elimination of all possible aetiologies.
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Contributors Conception and design: JD, MFG. Acquisition of data: AM. Drafting the article: MFG, AM, JD and RH. Critically revising the article: RH. Administrative/technical/material support: MFG, AM, JD and RH. Study supervision: JD.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests RH is a consultant for Covidien Stryker Codman MicroVention.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Patient consent for publication Obtained.