Respiratory failure requiring extracorporeal membranous oxygenation in the newborn is commonly seen secondary to severe pathology such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia, meconium aspiration syndrome, pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary hypoplasia. However, atypical causes of respiratory failure, such as pulmonary arterial thrombi, are often refractory to traditional management and require careful multidisciplinary evaluation. We report a case of respiratory failure secondary to congenital pulmonary arterial thrombosis of unknown aetiology in an otherwise healthy neonate. We discuss the abnormal anatomy and pathophysiology that presented in our patient secondary to this condition and discuss our diagnostic process, management and outcomes. Additionally, we review the literature for reported cases and discuss current hypotheses on the development of congenital pulmonary arterial thrombi. Given the rare occurrence of this event, we hope to contribute to the understanding of future similar cases and emphasise the importance of keeping pulmonary arterial thrombi in the clinical differential.
- neonatal intensive care
- haematology (incl blood transfusion)
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Contributors All authors were care providers for the patient. NJO wrote the manuscript. Revisions by MAM, MRH and BDV.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Patient consent for publication Parental/guardian consent obtained.
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