A 24-year-old man with a history of HIV and large B cell lymphoma (currently in remission) presented with fever, dry cough and dizziness. His CD4+ count was undetectable, and the HIV viral load was 109 295 cop/mL. Physical examination revealed fever, hypotension and tachycardia with coarse breath sounds in the middle and lower chest zones bilaterally. Chest imaging showed diffuse abnormal micronodular and patchy infiltrates, without focal consolidation. A cavitary lesion was noted measuring 5×2 cm in axial dimensions within the left lower lobe and multiple small cystic lesions in the background. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid culture grew Bordetella bronchiseptica. The patient was empirically treated with vancomycin and piperacillin–tazobactam for multifocal pneumonia with concerns for sepsis and was started on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) with abacavir/dolutegravir/lamivudine. Symptoms improved after day 3 of therapy, and the patient was discharged home on 2 weeks of moxifloxacin, in addition to the cART and appropriate chemoprophylaxis.
- infectious diseases
- Hiv / Aids
- medical management
- pneumonia (infectious disease)
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Contributors MS is the primary author and resident involved in the case; he wrote the manuscript and did the literature review. SS, the fellow supervising the case, revised the manuscript, and performed the bronchoalveolar lavage and co-authored the paper. ETM supervised the case as an attending and helped in reviewing the imaging as well as the draft. JD is the senior attending, a critical care intensivist and the primary pulmonologist for the patient; she decided on the final treatment and also supervised the manuscript comprehension and literature search.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Patient consent for publication Obtained.
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