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Serotonin syndrome unmasking thyrotoxicosis


A 26-year-old cachectic man presented with an altered mental status. He was agitated, tremulous, hyperthermic and diaphoretic with largely dilated pupils. Collateral history revealed acute ingestion of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on a background of chronic drug abuse. His condition deteriorated requiring sedation and intubation with transfer to the intensive care unit. A diagnosis of serotonin syndrome was made, based on his findings in keeping with the Hunter criteria, and he was treated with supportive management during a resultant and briefly sustained delirium. With gradual resolution of his agitated state, further questioning and blood work a concurrent, and potentially contributory, thyrotoxicosis was revealed. The patient was commenced on treatment for this with urgent outpatient follow-up with both a local otolaryngologist and endocrinologist for consideration of further treatment.

  • endocrine system
  • metabolic disorders
  • thyroid disease
  • toxicology
  • delirium
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