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Case report
Visceral leishmaniasis presenting as haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis
  1. Lewis Vanhinsbergh,
  2. Aaron Mason and
  3. Andrew Godfrey
  1. Haematology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Lewis Vanhinsbergh; lewis.vanhinsbergh1{at}


A 53-year-old man presented with a number of hospital admissions for investigation of fever of unknown origin. He became gradually weaker with significant weight loss, pancytopenia and progressive splenomegaly over a 6-month period of extensive investigation. This was undertaken at different NHS hospitals with involvement of multiple medical specialists. Clinical criteria for haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis were met. Following investigation, this was felt likely secondary to a low-grade lymphoma of the spleen, necessitating splenectomy for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Ultimately, this risky surgical procedure was avoided when positive L eishmania serology led to successful treatment with amphotericin B.

  • haematology (incl blood transfusion)
  • infectious diseases
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  • Contributors LV and AM contributed to writing of the manuscript. AG contributed to writing of the manuscript and approved the final version for publication.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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