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Meglumine antimoniate combination treatment for relapsing Kala-azar after treatment and secondary prophylaxis failure with liposomal amphotericin B in two HIV-coinfected patients


Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a protozoan infection caused by Leishmania infantum and L. donovani with a higher incidence and severity in HIV-infected patients due to its synergistic effect on hampering the immune response, often leading to death after treatment failure. Literature regarding the management of relapsing VL in HIV-coinfected patients is lacking. Many experts recommend a combined therapy with liposomal amphotericin B and miltefosine. The use of pentavalent antimonials is often discouraged due to their toxicity. We report two cases of successful response to treatment with combined therapy with meglumine antimoniate followed by secondary prophylaxis with miltefosine and atovaquone on relapsing VL in two HIV-coinfected patients despite treatment and monthly prophylaxis with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B.

  • infectious diseases
  • HIV / AIDS
  • tropical medicine (infectious disease)
  • drugs: infectious diseases

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