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Case report
Rare case of a proximal descending thoracic aorta mycotic aneurysm following intravesical BCG injections for the treatment of bladder cancer
  1. Luis Ribeiro1,
  2. Saissan Rajendran2,
  3. Katherine Stenson1 and
  4. Ian Loftus1
  1. 1Vascular Surgery, St George's Hospital, London, UK
  2. 2Vascular Surgery, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Luis Ribeiro; luis.ribeiro{at}


A 79-year-old man presented with an enlarging thoracic aneurysm on the background of superficial bladder cancer treated with intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) injections. Following the injections, he developed deranged liver function tests and hepatomegaly. Liver biopsy revealed granulomatous hepatitis compatible with disseminated mycobacterial infection (BCG-osis) and was treated with anti-tuberculosis agents for 12 months. A surveillance CT scan performed as a follow-up for his bladder cancer in 2018 revealed a saccular thoracic aneurysm at the ligamentum arteriosum, which was metabolically active on positron emission tomography (PET) scan. Given the timeframe from intravesical instillation of BCG and the metabolic activity on PET scan, the lesion was consistent with a mycotic aneurysm secondary to disseminated mycobacterial infection. Following multidisciplinary team discussion, a thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair was performed. The stent grafts were placed distal to the left subclavian artery with good angiographic results and no immediate postoperative complications. He was initiated on long-term antibiotics to cover potential bacterial pathogens including mycobacterium.

  • vascular surgery
  • urological cancer
  • vaccination/immunisation

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  • Contributors LR and SR contributed to conception and drafting of the manuscript. KS and IL were directly involved in patient care and were responsible for manuscript revision and final approval. All authors approved this manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.