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Case report
Oesophageal tuberculosis with concomitant candidiasis: a rare cause of dysphagia
  1. Nolitha Makapi Tisetso Morare1,2,
  2. David Morris Rose1 and
  3. Olivia Appels1
  1. 1 Department of Surgery, Klerksdorp Tshepong Hospital Complex, Klerksdorp, North West, South Africa
  2. 2 Department of Surgery, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa
  1. Correspondence to Dr Nolitha Makapi Tisetso Morare; nmorare{at}


We present a case of a 23-year-old woman with dysphagia. She was reportedly newly diagnosed with HIV and had been initiated on antiretroviral treatment and tuberculosis (TB) prophylaxis. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed an irregular, ulcerative oesophageal lesion. Subsequent histopathology revealed M ycobacterium tuberculosis as well as C andida albicans. A CT scan demonstrated widespread disease with miliary TB. She was subsequently initiated on antituberculous and antifungal medications. TB is one of the most common and deadly infectious diseases in the world, with the highest rates seen in the developing countries. It commonly occurs as an opportunistic infection of HIV. Despite its potential for systemic infection, infection of the oesophagus is incredibly rare, more so as a co-infection with candida. This case highlights the need to have a high index of suspicion in high risk groups, as early treatment is crucial in addressing this global health crisis.

  • respiratory system
  • endoscopy
  • ulcer
  • infection (gastroenterology)
  • TB and other respiratory infections

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  • Contributors NM (corresponding author) is responsible for patient management, conception of study, interpretation of results and treatment, planning and final design of write up; involved in literature review and discussion; final approval of the case for publication; agrees to be accountable for all aspect of the work. DMR is involved in interpretation of patient investigations and imaging; involved in literature review and write up; final approval of the case write up for publication; agrees to be accountable for all aspects of the work. OA is involved in acquisition of patient blood work and investigations; involved in write up of patients history and presentation; final approval of the case write up for publication; agrees to be accountable for all aspects of the work. All of the authors were involved in the management of the patient. They also contributed to the design and compilation of the report: patient history, literature review and so on. The authors have read and approved the final draft of this report and take full responsibility for the contents contained in it. All authors agree to be held accountable for all decisions relating to this report.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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