Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is a human oncoretrovirus known to cause adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Coinfection of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) results in enhanced expression of the HTLV virus and leads to aggressive organ involvement from T-cell malignancy. It has also been observed that the prevalence of hepatitis B infection has been higher in patients with HTLV ATLL as compared with the general population in certain countries. We describe a case of a 34-year-old man who initially presented with leucocytosis, fatigue and conjunctival erythema. His radiological images revealed significant generalised adenopathy, and his flow cytometry analysis came back positive for CD4-positive T-cell lymphoma. He was subsequently diagnosed with HTLV-positive ATLL. Ultimately the patient was also diagnosed with acute hepatitis B and EBV. We describe a unique case of ATLL with coinfection with two other viruses, the association of which can be of potential prognostic value in guiding the treatment strategies for ATLL.
- Haematology (incl blood transfusion)
- Malignant and Benign haematology
Statistics from Altmetric.com
Contributors AM: first author; worked on the manuscript, along with research on the topic; took care of the patient. MR: involved in the care of the patient; worked on the manuscript. CZ: provided and described the pathology slides of the case. MKS: worked on the description of the pathology slides and provided the figure of the case report.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Obtained.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.