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Myocardial calcification secondary to toxic shock syndrome: a comparative review of 17 cases
  1. Talha Ahmed1,
  2. Faisal Inayat2,
  3. Muhammad Haq1 and
  4. Taha Ahmed3
  1. 1 University of Maryland Medical Center - Midtown Campus, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
  2. 2 Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan
  3. 3 Cleveland Clinic - Fairview Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Faisal Inayat, faisalinayat{at}


Myocardial calcification is a rare and life-threatening condition. It has been associated with a myriad of causes, including ischaemic heart disease, cardiac surgery, rheumatic fever, and myocarditis. However, this entity is less well recognised in the setting of toxic shock syndrome. Published medical literature is scarce with regard to the pathogenesis and clinical implications of this potential association. We chronicle here the case of a patient with myocardial calcification secondary to toxic shock syndrome from our clinical experience. Furthermore, a systematic literature search of the medical databases PubMed and Google Scholar was conducted. A total of 17 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The data on patients’ characteristics, epidemiology, clinical features, comorbid conditions, diagnosis, clinical course and outcome were collected and analysed. The present review outlines our current understanding of the epidemiology of and risk factors for sepsis-related myocardial calcification, the pathophysiology of this condition and currently available approaches to diagnosis.

  • cardiovascular medicine
  • resuscitation
  • healthcare improvement and patient safety
  • adult intensive care

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  • Contributors TalA: designed the study, performed the literature review, drafted the manuscript, formulated the data table and reviewed the manuscript. FI: performed the literature review, drafted the manuscript, revised the manuscript critically for important intellectual content and gave the final approval for the version published. TahA: contributed to the case presentation and discussion. MH: reviewed the manuscript and suggested pertinent modification.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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