Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) after renal transplantation can be a diagnostic challenge. TMA can occur with calcineurin inhibitors, allograft rejection, infection, mutations in complement regulatory proteins and autoimmunity. A 52-year-old male renal transplant recipient presented with extensive deep vein thrombosis. He developed transfusion-dependent microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia with thrombocytopenia. He did not respond calcineurin inhibitor cessation, eculizumab or plasma exchange. ADAMTS13 and complement levels were normal. Infection and autoimmune screens were negative. A diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma was made on bone marrow biopsy. This represents a rare case of malignancy-associated TMA in a renal transplant recipient. Early diagnosis can facilitate the prompt initiation of chemotherapy which is the only treatment option.
- renal transplantation
- haematology (incl blood transfusion)
- acute renal failure
- respiratory cancer
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Patient consent for publication Next of kin consent obtained.
Contributors EV: responsible for the initial draft of the manuscript, histology slide and consent acquisition. JdM: provided editing and advice from the specialist haematology perspective. PT: provided editing and advice from the specialist renal transplant perspective. DF: revision and editing of the draft document and histological slide.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.