BMJ Case Reports 2018; doi:10.1136/bcr-2018-224386
  • Rare disease

Sarcoidosis and HIV infection in a native Saudi man

Open Access
  1. Mazen Alzahrani3
  1. 1Internal Medicine, King Fahad Armed Force Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  2. 2Internal Medicine Services, Maternity and Children’s Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  3. 3Ophthalmology, East Jeddah General Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Islam A Ibrahim, Islam.adnan{at}
  • Accepted 10 September 2018
  • Published 3 October 2018


Sarcoidosis is a rare condition among native Saudis. It typically presents with asymptomatic chest radiographs, exertional breathlessness and cough. The coexistence of sarcoidosis and HIV is also rare, and the overlap of the symptoms makes their differential diagnosis challenging. Nevertheless, the outcome of sarcoidosis is favourable with or without the presence of HIV. We present a case of a 55-year-old native Saudi man with extremely atypical sarcoidosis presentation coexisting with HIV. This case highlights the association between the two pathologies, and the difficulties encountered in establishing a proper diagnosis in the presence of two overlapping diseases.


  • IAI and OME contributed equally.

  • Contributors OME and IAI were involved in study design and planning, data collection, data analysis and interpretation, preparation of the manuscript, literature analysis/search, and funding. HAA and MA were involved mainly in data collection and entry, literature analysis, English language revision and preparation of the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:

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