BMJ Case Reports 2018; doi:10.1136/bcr-2017-221840
  • Rare disease

Central nervous system graft-versus-host disease (CNS-GvHD) after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

  1. Yves Chalandon1
  1. 1Division of Hematology, Department of Oncology, Hopitaux Universitaires de Genève, Geneva, Switzerland
  2. 2Neuroradiology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland
  1. Correspondence to Dr Karolina Polchlopek Blasiak, Karolina.Polchlopek{at} and Professor Yves Chalandon, Yves.Chalandon{at}
  • Accepted 4 December 2017
  • Published 12 January 2018


A 60-year-old man presented with impaired consciousness and psychomotor agitation after a second allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a matched unrelated donor for acute myeloid leukaemia. Clinical, biological and radiological evidence suggested a diagnosis of central nervous system graft-versus-host disease (CNS-GvHD). After intrathecal infusion of methylprednisolone, the clinical symptoms as well as the radiological abnormalities disappeared. The present report illustrates the difficulties in the diagnosis and the management of CNS-GvHD, a very rare and still challenging neurological complication that can occur after allogeneic HSCT.


  • Contributors Conception and design, planning, conducting, drafting lead, reporting, analysis and interpretation of data and discussion: KPB. Discussion, editing, conception and design, contribution and review: FS. Discussion, radiological part and assessments: M-IV. Planning, supervision, general direction, text review and feedback: YC.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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