BMJ Case Reports 2013; doi:10.1136/bcr-2013-008743

Haemophagocytic syndrome with disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with tuberculosis

  1. Narjess Khalfallah
  1. Department of Internal Medicine, Charles Nicolle's Hospital, Tunis, Tunisia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Eya Cherif, eyacherif{at}


Haemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a clinical entity that combines non-specific clinical and biological features. The diagnosis is usually confirmed by a bone marrow examination. HPS may be primary or secondary to a malignancy or to an infectious or autoimmune disease. Early aggressive survey of the aetiology and optimal treatment of the underlying disease improve the outcome of life-threatening HPS. Infection-associated HPS occurs predominantly in immunocompromised patients and is usually fatal. Leading trigger agents are viruses, especially the Epstein-Barr virus  and cytomegalovirus. Mycobacterial infections associated with HPS are rare but should be considered in those patients where there is associated fever of unknown origin. We present a case of disseminated tuberculosis-associated HPS.

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