At the twisted heart of nicotine addiction
- 1Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
- 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
- Correspondence to Dr Robert Michael Reed,
This case report reviews the ECG manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Distinct changes of the P-wave axis, QRS axis and morphology are a direct result of the pathophysiological and anatomical changes associated with COPD. These changes are illustrated in a patient with a history of COPD presenting with hypoxaemia and symptoms of shortness of breath.
Competing interests None.
Patient consent Not obtained.